We propose a novel formulation for relaxed analysis-based sparsity in multiple dictionaries as a general type of prior for images, and apply it for Bayesian estimation in image restoration problems. Our formulation of a l2 -relaxed l0 pseudo-norm prior allows for an especially simple maximum a posteriori estimation iterative marginal optimization algorithm, whose convergence we prove. We achieve a significant speedup over the direct (static) solution by using dynamically evolving parameters through the estimation loop. As an added heuristic twist, we fix in advance the number of iterations, and then empirically optimize the involved parameters according to two performance benchmarks. The resulting constrained dynamic method is not just fast and effective, it is also highly robust and flexible. First, it is able to provide an outstanding tradeoff between computational load and performance, in visual and objective, mean square error and structural similarity terms, for a large variety of degradation tests, using the same set of parameter values for all tests. Second, the performance benchmark can be easily adapted to specific types of degradation, image classes, and even performance criteria. Third, it allows for using simultaneously several dictionaries with complementary features. This unique combination makes ours a highly practical deconvolution method.

}, keywords = {Bayes methods, Bayesian estimation, Convergence, Dictionaries, Estimation, Kernel, L2-relaxed L0 pseudo norm, L2-relaxed L0 pseudo-norm prior, L2-relaxed sparse analysis priors, Maximum likelihood estimation, Optimization, Redundancy, computational load, constrained dynamic method, deconvolution, deconvolution method, dynamically evolving parameters, estimation loop, fast constrained dynamic algorithm, image restoration, iterative marginal optimization, iterative methods, maximum a posteriori estimation, mean square error, mean square error methods, multiple representations, multiple-feature L2-relaxed sparse analysis priors, optimisation, robust tunable parameters, structural similarity terms}, issn = {1057-7149}, doi = {10.1109/TIP.2015.2478405}, author = {Javier Portilla and Antonio Trist{\'a}n-Vega and Ivan W. Selesnick} } @article {420, title = {A model selection algorithm for a posteriori probability estimation with neural networks}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks}, volume = {16}, year = {2005}, pages = {799-809}, abstract = {This paper proposes a novel algorithm to jointly determine the structure and the parameters of a posteriori probability model based on neural networks (NNs). It makes use of well-known ideas of pruning, splitting, and merging neural components and takes advantage of the probabilistic interpretation of these components. The algorithm, so called a posteriori probability model selection (PPMS), is applied to an NN architecture called the generalized softmax perceptron (GSP) whose outputs can be understood as probabilities although results shown can be extended to more general network architectures. Learning rules are derived from the application of the expectation-maximization algorithm to the GSP-PPMS structure. Simulation results show the advantages of the proposed algorithm with respect to other schemes. {\^A}{\textcopyright} 2005 IEEE.

}, keywords = {Algorithms, Automated, Biological, Breast Neoplasms, Computer simulation, Computer-Assisted, Computing Methodologies, Decision Support Techniques, Diagnosis, Estimation, Expectation-maximization, Generalized Softmax Perceptron (GSP), Humans, Mathematical models, Model selection, Models, Neural Networks (Computer), Neural networks, Numerical Analysis, Objective function, Pattern recognition, Posterior probability, Probability, Statistical, Stochastic Processes, algorithm, article, artificial neural network, automated pattern recognition, biological model, breast tumor, classification, cluster analysis, computer analysis, computer assisted diagnosis, decision support system, evaluation, human, mathematical computing, methodology, statistical model, statistics}, issn = {10459227}, doi = {10.1109/TNN.2005.849826}, url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-23044459586\&partnerID=40\&md5=f00e7d86a625cfc466373a2a938276d0}, author = {J I Arribas and Jes{\'u}s Cid-Sueiro} } @conference {413, title = {Fusing Output Information in Neural Networks: Ensemble Performs Better}, booktitle = {Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings}, year = {2003}, address = {Cancun}, abstract = {A neural network ensemble is a learning paradigm where a finite number of component neural networks are trained for the same task. Previous research suggests that an ensemble as a whole is often more accurate than any of the single component networks. This paper focuses on the advantages of fusing different nature network architectures, and to determine the appropriate information fusion algorithm in component neural networks by several approaches within hard decision classifiers, when solving a binary pattern recognition problem. We numerically simulated and compared the different fusion approaches in terms of the mean-square error rate in testing data set, over synthetically generated binary Gaussian noisy data, and stated the advantages of fusing the hard outputs of different component networks to make a final hard decision classification. The results of the experiments indicate that neural network ensembles can indeed improve the overall accuracy for classification problems; in all fusion architectures tested, the ensemble correct classification rates are better than those achieved by the individual component networks. Finally we are nowadays comparing the above mentioned hard decision classifiers with new soft decision classifier architectures that make use of the additional continuous type intermediate network soft outputs, fulfilling probability fundamental laws (positive, and add to unity), which can be understood as the a posteriori probabilities of a given pattern to belong to a certain class.

}, keywords = {Algorithms, Backpropagation, Classification (of information), Computer simulation, Decision making, Estimation, Gaussian noise (electronic), Information fusions, Mathematical models, Medical imaging, Model selection, Multilayer neural networks, Neural network ensembles, Pattern recognition, Probability, Probability estimation, Problem solving, Regularization, Statistical methods, Statistical pattern recognition, Vectors}, doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2003.1280254}, url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-1542301061\&partnerID=40\&md5=32dbadb3b6ac3c6ae1ea33d89b52c75f}, author = {Y Wu and J I Arribas} } @article {409, title = {Cost functions to estimate a posteriori probabilities in multiclass problems}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks}, volume = {10}, year = {1999}, pages = {645-656}, abstract = {The problem of designing cost functions to estimate a posteriori probabilities in multiclass problems is addressed in this paper. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions that these costs must satisfy in one-class one-output networks whose outputs are consistent with probability laws. We focus our attention on a particular subset of the corresponding cost functions; those which verify two usually interesting properties: symmetry and separability (well-known cost functions, such as the quadratic cost or the cross entropy are particular cases in this subset). Finally, we present a universal stochastic gradient learning rule for single-layer networks, in the sense of minimizing a general version of these cost functions for a wide family of nonlinear activation functions.

}, keywords = {Cost functions, Estimation, Functions, Learning algorithms, Multiclass problems, Neural networks, Pattern recognition, Probability, Problem solving, Random processes, Stochastic gradient learning rule}, issn = {10459227}, doi = {10.1109/72.761724}, url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0032643080\&partnerID=40\&md5=d528195bd6ec84531e59ddd2ececcd46}, author = {Jes{\'u}s Cid-Sueiro and J I Arribas and S Urban-Munoz and A R Figueiras-Vidal} }